Cattle and horsesRaising cattle for beef production is a predominant activity in these mountainous spaces, and it has been increasing in recent years. The currently existing practices include the use of natural grassland vegetation for grazing, usually in combination with other sources of pasture that have lower value in terms of conservation. These management systems have also been changing in recent years, but the use of heathlands and grassland habitats has always continued during at least part of the annual cycle. In Galicia, the most commonly used cattle breeds are the one known as Rubia Galega and various crossbred types derived from it, while in Euskadi, the most common breed is known as Pirenaica. In some areas, protected indigenous breeds such as Cachena, Vianesa, Terreña, and Betizu are used, which are characterised by their rugged nature.The beef from these breeds is highly valued in the market, but there is no system that can add value for production using sustainable management systems or those that make a positive contribution to habitat conservation. In Euskadi, there is labelling with the “Euskal Okela” protected geographical indication.In northern Galicia, in the pilot areas located in Serra do Xistral, Monte Maior, and Serra da Faladoira, the traditional livestock management system consists of a combination of extensive grazing of cattle raised for beef production, which benefits the local economy, and free-ranging wild horse populations subject to traditional management practices, which provide indirect benefits by making the heath and bog habitats more suitable for use as cattle grazing pastures.In Euskadi mountains, herds of horses being raised for meat production are also commonly found, generally from the indigenous breed known as the Basque Country Mountain Horse.